In their presentation at the GACC forum, Paul Means and Chris Lanning take a look at the supply chain problem with using woody biomass as a replacement for charcoal in urban areas, and they propose some ideas for equipment that may overcome those problems, as well as identifying some of the challenges to that approach.

See the full presentation here:

Biocharproject.org announces the stumpy biochar combination cooker.

Its a tlud its a rocket stove it has many applications and fully customisable.
Simple design utilises waste LPG tanks to provide safe efficent cheap cooking.

Designed and Made in Australia by Biochar Project and Labrador Mens shed.

See the complete story on http://biocharproject.org

Open source free design

Quoting "Prof. S.C. Bhattacharya" :

Dear all,

I would be happy to share some publications arising from the following
activities at the Asian Institute of Technology:
1. Sida funded Regional project: An information package (including
construction details) on biomass briquetting machines developed in a
number of Asian countries and design of natural- cross-draft gasifier stoves that can operate continuously is available. The briquetting machines developed
were improvements on standard screw-press heated die design. Cross-flow
gasifier stoves were designed for different sizes; these do not need any
blower and can operate continuously without any smoke.

The briquetting and gasifier stove work I mentioned was carried out under a
Sida-sponsored project at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The
project involved researchers from 12 national research institutes of six
Asian countries, e.g., Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal, Philippines and
Vietnam. The findings of the project were disseminated through national
dissemination seminars in these countries; published "Technology packages"
were distributed widely in the region and are still available for
downloading from the project website. We organized technology transfer
workshops, in which a number of NGOs form the region were invited, on most
of the technologies developed.

(There is no restriction on distribution of the technology packages.)

Unfortunately, the link of the project is not working due to heavy flood in
Thailand; AIT appears to be still under 2 m of water.

2. GTZ funded project on Biocoal: We used the term "Biocoal" (rather than
"Biochar") for charcoal produced from solid organic residues such as
agricultural residues and waste wood. The findings of the project were
reported in a book titled "Biocoal Technology and Economics" by "Regional
Energy Resources Information Center (RERIC)" (email:enreric@ait.ac.th).

The chapters of the 495-page book were:

  • 1. State of the art of biocoal technology,
  • 2. Biocoal technology: A comparison of options and recommendations,
  • 3. Carbonisation of sawdust briquettes,
  • 4. Laboratory-scale batch carbonisation selected residues,
  • 5. Cost and availability of selected residues in Thailand,
  • 6. Characterisation of selected residues,
  • 7.Biocoal: Market requirements and Opportunities in Thailand, and 8. Economics of biocoal production in Thailand.

A few copies of the book are still available with RERIC. A number of
chapters of the book were summarised as journal articles; I will be happy
share some of these with interested persons for their personal use and
research purpose.

Other technology packages and published papers of the Sida project can be downloaded from www.retsasia.ait.ac.th. The biomass/stove group may be interested the package on drying, which includes a hybrid drier using solar energy and bioenergy from a gasifier stove, heat output of which could be automatically controlled by using a thermostat.

I also coordinated another regional project (Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate, ARRPEEC) funded by Sida in three phases during 1995-2005. One of the 4 projects of ARRPEEC was on biomass. Dissemination booklets of ARRPEEC and some of the papers published can be downloaded from http://www.arrpeec.ait.ac.th

I learned to make TLUDs from Dr. Paul Anderson when he came to do a stove & biochar demonstration for Biochar Ontario in June 2009. Since my primary interest was in producing biochar, I went home and began building a larger version of the “Champion” TLUD stove from a 55 gallon drum and a 25 gallon drum (pictured above.) I have been following this list since then and on “Dr. TLUD’s” urging, I thought should begin sharing with this community what I have been learning.

The “Large TLUD”

Essentially a "beefed up" version of the Champion TLUD Stove, my large TLUD has worked beautifully from the first trial run. The pyrolysis process is extremely clean in terms of visible emissions and can produce 25 – 30 liters (6 – 8 gallons) of biochar per run depending on feedstock. To halt the pyrolysis process to retain the biochar I have always used a watering can to quench the glowing coals. Two to four gallons of water usually does the trick.

Using this stove, I have pyrolyzed a number of different types of feedstock including: scraps of spruce lumber, pine needles, pine cones, pine bark, corn cobs, chicken litter, and hardwood sawdust pellets. The successful pyrolysis of the various feedstock has always depended on (no surprise here) having dry feedstock with pyrolysis times ranging from one to two + hours (again, depending on feedstock.)

Until recently I had been using a hardware store woodstove thermometer on the top of the stove.
I estimated pyroloysis temperatures to be in the 350-450 C range. I began using a 12vdc computer cooling fan to shorten run times and boost temperatures closer to 500 C. I recently acquired a temperature data logger and found, to my surprise, that temperature quickly shot to over 800 C with the fan. Even without the fan, temperatures in and above the pyrolysis front were between 600 and 750 C. The data from the first run with the data logger is attached. *Note:T1 is the thermocouple near the top of the inner fuel barrel just below the top of the feedstck and T2 is the thermocouple about 2 inches above the bottom of the inner fuel barrel.

My next steps are to monitor temperatures while experimenting with choking the primary air to different degrees and as I gain better control of pyrolysis temperatures, to (further) experiment with various types of feedstock. I am also working on a simple system to use the pyrolysis heat to dry feedstock.
I will post my results here.

Below you will find an interesting discussion, concerning the drying of fuel,
that was on the gasification list.


Greg Manning wrote:
The Drying Process I use is simple, the sun and an inclined sheet of heavy
wire screen mounted in a large tiltable frame, chips are loaded onto the
screen, screen is inclined, and about 3 hours later, the chips start to
slide, or tumble down (moisture released, they are now lighter in mass, and
slide down),

As the United States biomass thermal and power industry continues to expand, new reliable technologies offering higher efficiency solutions must be introduced. The newly introduced EOS series biomass gasification boiler is among the most energy efficient of AESI’s high-performance, low-maintenance biomass energy plants. The EOS series provides thermal outputs ranging from 600,000 BTU/hr to 20 million BTU/hr, and can be staged to provide increased capacity.

Designed and built by the leaders in the biomass waste to energy market in Europe, Uniconfort, the EOS series builds upon over 50 years of experience and over 4000 successful installations throughout the world. When asked about the highly efficient EOS series, CEO of Uniconfort Davis Zinetti notes, “we must not forget that greater efficiency is associated with less CO2 production. Choosing EOS, therefore, means making a choice in favor of the environment.”

Vitagoat Steam Boiler
Malnutrition Matters, Ottawa, Canada

Steam boiler: Operates on wood or other solid fuels or liquid gas. Steam-injected pressure -cooking can be 10 times more fuel efficient than traditional open fire cooking and more efficient than improved stove-design cooking. Water is heated in an inner chamber and the resulting steam is re-heated in a tube, creating a “superheated steam” that is much hotter than regular steam. The steam is then fed into the cooker. The boiler is inexpensive to build, safe, and can be taken apart for cleaning, which is critical since most boilers accumulate scale on their inner shells and eventually fail.

Dual-Reactor Rice Husk Gasifier for 6-Tonne Capacity Recirculating-Type Paddy Dryer
Alexis T. Belonio, Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines August 29, 2006

Paddy Gasifier 4
Paddy Gasifier 4

Rice husk, which is a by-product of milling of rice, is a potential biomass material that can be used to replace diesel fuel that is commonly used in a recirculating- type grain dryer. Gasifying rice husk on a top-lit updraft (T-LUD) mode was proven to produce quality flame that approaches the quality of that of diesel. Using gasifier, combustible gases can be piped-in through a remote burner for direct use by the dryers. Since, T-LUD type rice husk gasifier normally operates on a batch mode, a dual-reactor rice husk gasifier was designed and developed so that the reactor can be alternately ran thereby continuous drying operation can be achieved.

Rice Husk Furnace for Recirculating Type Paddy Dryer (pdf)
Alexis Belonio, Central Philippine University, Iloilo, Philippines May 2006

Wood Fired Dryer for Cacao Bean, ACODEMUBE, Nicaragua (March 4, 2002)
Larry Winiarski, Aprovecho Research Institute, March 2002

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