Paal Wendelobo, January 2010

What I feel is strongly needed by NGO's and others dealing with Household Energy for Developing Countries; is a list of about top10 actual fuels to be used and top 10 actual types of stoves to be used.


A couple of the presentations from the ASEAN-US NEXT-GENERATION COOK STOVE WORKSHOP, November 19, 2009.

One is a great study by Dr. Modi of Columbia University of several stoves in Tanzania, and the other is some useful info from Tami Bond. Kirk also gave a very useful presentation, but unfortunately it was not included in the proceedings.

Paul Anderson, March, 2009 How many of each major type of cookstoves exist in the developing societies(functioning in 2009)? The attached "draft" Matrix gives you my guesses. Perhaps YOU have additional input. Maybe we should change the Matrix. More columns, more lines. Or do you agree with what content? What I am attempting is to get us all reasonably "on the same page", literally on the same single page. Please look carefully at the two Notes at the bottom. In the general rank ordering, any stove type (or specific stoves within a type) might be shifted one or two columns to the left or right. But the question is, are the notes and orderings reasonably correct? There is no right or wrong, best or worst. By sheer numbers of units, the 3-stove fire is "best." It literally is "the competition to beat" for all of the other stoves. The file is an active MS Word document ( .doc), so you can change it as you please, but please indicate that you have altered it. (I desire neither the glory nor the blame for what you contribute.) It is a very small file and might be distributed with this message.

Design and Development of a Natural Draft Biomass Gasifier
R. Krishna Kumar February 28, 2009

Naturl Draft Gasifier - KumarNatural Draft Gasifier - Kumar


  • Operates under the principlle of “ Chimney Effectt ”
  • Natural draft caused by density difference


  • No blower is required for the operation
  • Automatically takes the required quantity of air for Gasification
  • Convey the Producer Gas formed by Gasification - Naturally
  • Reduced fuel consumption compared to traditional chulas

More detail, schematic pictures and testing information are in the attached pdfs and in the 2004 discussion:

Hello stoves community,

At ETHOS 2009 we held a panel on stove safety, bringing in viewpoints from corporate standards development, national standards certification, and small to medium scale developers. The team led by Nathan Johnson (Iowa State University) included Crispin Pemberton-Pigott (New Dawn Engineering), Casper Thijssen (Philips), and Karabi Dutta.

The panel gave a comparative analysis of how different stove industries (multinational corporations, medium-scale companies, NGOs, small developers, etc.) addressed fundamental stove safety questions. These topics included:

a) applicability of standards and regulation;
b) incentives and benefits
c) facilities and equipment availability
d) cost vs. benefit
e) resulting action

We determined that each type of industry has a different perspective that influences their path or actions towards a safer stove. And that all sub-industries may not produce safer stoves given the same incentive mechanisms or policies. As such more than one path to safety may be needed to reach the greatest amount of end-users (and producers). The panel ended the discussion with an overview present work in stove safety with recommendations for next steps.

Please view the attached file for more details. I will be leading a group in 2009 to work on the following: assemble database of injury data, b) analyze incentive mechanisms, cost/ benefit, c) development of lab testing procedures for different stove categories, d) publication of findings/ results, and e) look for partnerships with international agencies to support safer stove design and production.

Please contact me if you have any questions. There will be more updates to follow. Best,
Nathan Johnson
PhD Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, International Development
Iowa State University

This is an experiment using biomass in the KEROSENE WICK STOVE. (for more photographs) The stove was lit at the top using a little amount of biomass soaked in kerosene. The fine holes of 1 to 2 mm located all along the inner and outer frame are useful in achieving very good bluish flames. The flames continued for 30 to 45 minutes duration. Only at the end the performance was bad, the option was that, a lid was used to shut down safely. The fire was very high (Reasons I am not sure). If one does not have enough kerosene, and in emergency one can use the kerosene stoves too with fine wood shavings as fuel. The end product is very good biochar. I am thankful to TOM REED for explaining the functioning of a Kerosene stove, which was the motivation for doing this experiment.
Also see

Kevin Chisholm, December 2005

Dear All,

Would you think it would be helpful if the Stoves List posed a "General Specification" for stoves?

What is the maximum cost of the stove delivered to the "Customer", in $US equivalent?
What is the maximum allowable cost for installation?

Boiling water? Stewing? Frying? Baking?

Dale Andreatta November 14, 2004, Updated January 17, 2005

Executive Summary

T. B. Reed and Ron Larson

*Presented at the "Developments in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion" Conference, Banff, Canada, 20-24 May, 1996.

Introduction -

A.The Problem

Since the beginning of civilization wood and biomass have been used for cooking. Over 2 billion people cook badly on inefficient wood stoves that waste wood, cause health problems and destroy the forest. Electricity, gas or liquid fuels are preferred for cooking - when they can be obtained, but they depend on having a suitable infrastructure and are often not available in developing countries. In the last few decades, many improved wood stoves have been developed (the Chula, the Hiko, the Maendeleo, the Kuni Mbili, etc.), but the new wood stoves are often more difficult to manufacture, often more heat goes to the stove than to the food, and they do not offer good control of cooking rate. They are not always accepted by the cooks for whom they are developed.[1] Because of the problems of wood cooking, people often cook over charcoal. However, charcoal manufacture is very wasteful of energy and very polluting, so the problems of the wood stove are externalized but not solved.


Gas is preferred for cooking wherever it is available. Gas can be made from wood and biomass in gasifiers developed in this century, but these gasifiers are generally too big for home use. A downdraft stove for domestic cooking is now being manufactured in China.[2] We have developed a new "inverted downdraft gasifier" stove shown in Fig. 1. It operates using only natural convection. The rate of gas production and heating is controlled by the primary air supply to the gasifier. As an option, the gasifier can make charcoal with a 20-25% yield. The wood-gas stove consists of an "inverted downdraft gasifier" (shown in Fig. 2) plus a burner to mix air and gas and burn cleanly (Fig. 3). These sections are discussed below. The stove has been started and operated indoors with no exhaust fans and no odor of burning wood. However, we believe that there is still much work to be done in optimizing the stove for various fuels, adapting it to various cooking situations and developing other uses. For that reason we are publishing our preliminary results and hope that others will help adapt these principles to improve world cooking and wood conservation.

TLUD Workshop being offered prior to ETHOS Conference
Hosted by Hydrovolts
Biomass Energy Foundation is offering a Workshop on the technical and practical concepts of its micro-gasification units. Dr. Paul Anderson aka “Dr TLUD” will provide an overview of the science and technology of the Top Lit Up Draft (TLUD) stove and its applications in meeting the cooking needs of local communities around the globe.
He will be assisted by Bob Fairchild, Christa Roth, and Kathy Nafie.


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