Air quality

Small gas cooker using pellet biocarbon
Medium gas cooker burning pellet biocarbon
Medium gas cooker with pot and  'Vietnam Magic Fire'
Close up of Medium gas cooker"Vietnam Magic Fire'
pellet biocarbon
Shaped "anthill" biocarbon Briquette

After over 30 years of doing theoretical and experimental research, the authors of this document (Newtech Co., Ltd. in Quy Nhon city, Binh Dinh and Tan My Kim Co., Ltd. in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam), until now, have completed all not only modern but also cheap & user-friendly technology solutions which can help the poor all over the world do cooking by gas generated at their home without buying any drops of liquefied gas.

These technologies solutions can be developed in a country or in a big city or small town in any countries in the world, even it is in America, Europe, Australia and especially in Asia and Africa.

The authors believe that the modern but simple technology solutions stated hereby will start an era of a great revolution in cooking for billions of the poor all over the world and they hope that such technology will satisfy all poor persons.

The authors are very willingly to transfer these technologies to the countries in accordance with the international law in order to be together with such countries to help the poor all over the world.

  2  FUELS FOR  I STOVE:    COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL  OR  WOOD (IPIL-IPIL) (Leucaena  leuco
In operation with Wood Fuel and Charcoal
Similar product quality
different emissions
Demonstration
One of the ovens in use.

Eco-Kalan has adapted their Binkga Oven (named ofter the rice cakes that the ovens make) to use both locally available coconut charcoal and stick wood fuel.

The system uses the same oven bottom, and two different covers, one for wood and one for charcoal. Both ovens can bake high quality Bingka rice cakes, but with two different levels of particulate emissions. (Notice the soot on the wood fired oven). However, both ovens are cleaner than the hornohan stove that Eco-Kalan would like to replace.

The Bingka Oven works over a range of cooking temperatures (325 deg. F - 500 deg F) and has can cook both bingka and torta breads (with or without filling). Rebecca is anticipating that it will also work for a wide variety of other baked goods.

They have demonstrated the oven for local parents, teachers, government officials, and others. They have also reached out to people who work with remote communities that in the mountains. The first commercial production will target bakers who are preparing the bingka and torta on the more common and smokey hornohan stoves and anticipate the newer stove will give these bakers the ability to make high quality goods with lower costs and improved health.

See the attached files for details.

Notes from Paul Anderson
Gustavo has presented a very nice video of the use of a tall TLUD gasifier under a DUAL purpose stove frame (frame = stove structure without the heat source) that first boiled 5 liters of water in 12 minutes, and then converted into a plancha stove with chimney, cooking papusas (related to tortillas). Total cooking time 1 hour 45 minutes on one batch of wood chips/chunks (5237 grams) that yielded 1300 g of char. 25% weight yield of char. Probably could have operated an additional 10 minutes with pyrolysis fire and a slightly lower percentage yield of char.

Note: That is approximately 4000 g of fuel of pyrolytic gases (including moisture content that was probably near 15%). Any ash content (probably 1% of the raw fuel) remained in the char.

For a comprehensive resource for TLUD stoves, see Paul's web site: http://www.drtlud.com/

Flip Anderson, Haiti Rocket Stove
Aprovecho StoveTec
Mayon Turbo Rice Husk Stove
BioLite Camp Stove
BioLite Camp Stove in Christa Roth's Demonstration House

(Thanks to Ben Sloan!) the presentations are posted on the ETHOS website: http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/ethos/proceedings2013.html

Save the Date!: ETHOS 2014, it will be at Northwest University in Kirkland, Washington on January 24 - 26, 2014.

Quad 2 Stove

Paul Anderson, Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

The Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is a not-for-profit organization which works “to enhance access to modern types of energy through research, training and consultancy”.

The CREEC offers independent stove testing services, and has recently tested the Quad 2 Stove.

For the full test report and method see the pdf:
http://www.stoves.bioenergylists.org/files/quad_2_stove.pdf

The center tested the Quad 2 Stove and found that:
The Quad stove boils 5L of water in 27 minutes. To boil and simmer 5L of water, it uses 636g of dry wood and has an energy use of 11713kJ. It has a thermal efficiency of 42% during the high power phase and 41% during simmering. It has a turndown ratio of 1.4, an indication that the stove’s firepower can be controlled for different cooking regimes. Its fuel use is considered to achieve significant, measurabe health and environmental goals according to the Lima Consensus Tiers of stove ranking.

With regards to safety, the stove scored 77.5% and is rated GOOD and is considered a Substantial Improvement according to the Lima Consensus Tiers of stove ranking.

File attachments: 

MIT has recently published the paper "Up in Smoke" by Rema Hanna, Ester Duflo and Michael Greenston which studies the a randomized installation of the Chullah in India. The study participants received skilled help in installing the Chullah stove and minimal help in maintaining them.

The Study is published Here:
http://www.charcoalproject.org/2012/04/news-clean-cookstoves-draw-suppor...
this link is shorter http://bit.ly/IfI0ZL

Mike Barbee, January 2012

Jatropha curcas is grown as a living livestock corral and as a bio-fuel crop in several areas of the developing world. The seed from the Jatropha plant, as well as the oils are toxic to animals and to people. Ingestion, or skin contact with the oils of the plants, leafs and seeds is known to be toxic, and Mike does a nice job of documenting the current research about the plant in his paper: Summary of Literature on Jatropha Toxicity

It appears that there is NO RESEARCH on the toxicity of Inhaled jatropha either seed, stem, or cake (or pressed cake) form. This is an area of particular concern for me as we evaluate the effectiveness of using Jatropha as a fuel for cooking stoves.

to quote Mike:

There are no studies about jatropha the fraction of phorbol esters that may be present during pressing, composting, or burning. There is not enough information about the volatility to estimate the partitioning of oil that may contain esters in the air during the processing and application

The Key recommendation:
"It is recommended at this point, that those who are working directly with oil and seed cake during the pressing process wear protective eye and skin covering and, if possible, surgical masks to reduce inhalation."

the Partnership for Clean Indoor Air (PCIA) December, 2011

PCIA Bulletin Issue 29
http://www.pciaonline.org/bulletin/pcia-bulletin-issue-29

This Bulletin focuses fuels for clean burning stoves. As they note, a lot of effort has been focused on wood burning stoves, but in urban areas, stick wood is hard to come by, and charcoal is a much more popular fuel. There's a good reason for this, studies have shown that charcoal stoves have up to 90% less indoor air pollution than similar wood stoves. In urban areas, there is a noticeable improvement in indoor air quality simply by shifting to charcoal burning. Additionally, biomass fuel briquettes, pellets, and other densified paper burning stoves are showing a lot of promise in urban areas so this bulletin profiles projects that use urban waste to create fuel briquettes that can be sold to stove owners.

http://www.pciaonline.org/bulletin/pcia-bulletin-issue-29

Mussie T. (Lecturer at Mekelle University, Ethiopia), October, 2011

This is a Natural Draft Gasifier stove, that is designed with a central column of air that is designed to burn more common Ethopian fuels, e.g. coffee husk and saw-dust (cow dung binder) briquettes in addition to more conventional wood chips.

the air column is drilled on the surface so as to let additional primary air radially into the fuel at different stages to compensate for air clotting that can occur when run with small sized fuel as you go up from along fuel column. This helps the flaming pyrolysis from being air starved due to interlocking of fuel particles. In addition to that, closely spaced holes of relatively larger size were made near the top of the central air column to supply more hot post‐pyrolysis secondary air. The presence of two hot secondary air admission points is meant to supply enough air while keeping the stove short with reduced heat loss.

Once the stove has enough fuel, it is typically started with wood chips, or an accelerant to help the briquettes light, and then in all of the trials it burned without smoke until the fuel tank was filled with charcoal (typically between 60 and 90 minutes later). This is a biochar-producing stove, the stove does not efficiently combust it. Friability and the composition of the char depended upon the feedstocks.

For an excellent analysis of the stove, and pictures of the biochar, please see the included Report: Results from Preliminary Experiments Conducted on Multi‐level
Primary Air Entry Gasifier Stove

Practical Action, Kenya

The Upesi stove, also known as the Maendeleo has been successful in Kenya. It has two parts, a simple pottery cylinder with pot rests (known as the liner) that is built into a mud surround in the kitchen. Fuel is fed into the fire through an opening in the front of the stove, and it has no chimney, but it produces much less smoke than an open fire.

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